Euthymics companies are focused on the modulation of three important neurotransmitters: serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA). These neurotransmitters are known to affect cognition, mood, emotion, and pain. The following schematic illustrates the known effects of each monoamine, and their overlap with each other:
By changing the ratios of multiple transporter affinities in a single compound it is hoped that symptoms of the target disorder can be improved, while reducing the side-effects often seen with a compound which only modulates the reuptake of one of the monoamines. By way of example, Euthymics Bioscience’s lead compound amitifadine (formerly EB-1010) modulates 5-HT, NE, and DA in a relative ratio of 1:2:8 which has a positive effect on depressive symptoms while avoiding weight gain, loss of sexual function and loss of cognition. This is in contrast to the typical SSRI which only modulates serotonin and which frequently can cause weight gain, loss of sexual function and loss of cognition. Market research indicates that primary care physicians and psychiatrists would prefer a single product over multiple products or combinations if a similar effect can be achieved.
Neurovance’s EB-1020, on the other hand, modulates NE, DA, and 5-HT in a relative ratio of 1:6:14. It has been hypothesized that this preferential effect on NE will improve attention while the positive DA effect improves speed of onset and executive function.
Euthymics’ technology allows us to “tune” the interactions of 5-HT, NE and DA transporters with compounds having varying ratios of affinity for the three transporters. With this tuning we can optimize molecules for specific indications. The Euthymics family of companies has a pipeline of compounds that modulate these three monoamine systems in various ratios. In addition to the lead compounds amitifadine and EB-1020, we have research-stage compounds with potential for treatment-resistant depression, substance abuse, premenstrual dysphoria disorder, anxiety, pain and cognitive disorders.